For those looking to get started with an ABA/VB program for their children or students, there are several essential resources. While this is not a complete list of ABA/VB resources, these should get you started on the right track.


- Teaching Language to Children with Autism Or Other Developmental Disabilities by Drs. Mark Sundberg and James Partington. Available at Behavior Analysts, Inc. and Different Roads to Learning.

Most children with autism or other developmental disabilities experience severe language delays or disorders. Teaching language to these children can be quite a challenge to parents and professionals. This book presents a state-of-the-art language assessment and intervention program based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral analysis of language, and the extensive body of empirical research that supports Skinner's analysis. The first section of the book provides information regarding preparation for language intervention, including a brief language assessment and a system to interpret the assessment in order to determine the best place to start intervention for an individual child. Section One also contains a chapter on augmentative communication and information on how to decide if it is necessary; and if so, which type might be the best for an individual child. Section Two focuses on the development of initial communication skills for nonverbal children, and Section Three focuses on teaching more advanced language and social skills. Section Four presents issues relevant to the implementation of a language program in a child's natural and school environments. In addition, there are a variety of data sheets and skills tracking forms located throughout the book. (312 pages)

- Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills by Drs. Mark Sundberg and James Partington. Available at Behavior Analysts, Inc. and Different Roads to Learning.

The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (The ABLLS) is an assessment, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system for children with language delays. The ABLLS contains a task analysis of the many skills necessary to communicate successfully and to learn from everyday experiences. The ABLLS is comprised of two separate documents: The ABLLS Scoring Instructions and IEP Development Guide (The ABLLS Guide) and The ABLLS Protocol that is used to record scores for each child. The ABLLS Guide provides instructions for scoring The ABLLS Protocol and for completing the skills tracking grids for an individual student. The ABLLS Guide also provides strategies to assist parents, educators and other professionals to use the information obtained from the completed assessment protocol to develop an effective Individualized Education Program (IEP) for the child. The ABLLS Protocol provides both parents and professionals with criterion-referenced information regarding a child’s current skills, and provides a curriculum that can serve as a basis for the selection of educational objectives. The ABLLS Protocol also includes a set of grids that comprise a skills tracking system that make it possible to observe and document the child’s progress in the acquisition of critical skills. The ABLLS Protocol is only available as part of an introductory two-book set (The ABLLS Guide and The ABLLS Protocol) and to registered owners of The ABLLS Guide.

- Carbone CD Seminar Set by Dr. Vincent J. Carbone. Available at ABA Toolchest.

Now available on CD, this comprehensive CD Seminar Set will describe the behavioral approach to teaching communication skills to children with Autism and other developmental disabilities. This approach is based on B. F. Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and the research of Michael, Sundberg, Partington, and others. You will learn how to: Conduct a Behavioral Language Assessment; Select the most appropriate form of communication for a child or adult, such as vocalization, signing, pointing to or exchanging pictures, or activating an augmentative device; Select the communication responses and supporting skills that should be taught first. The CD Seminar Set will include the recommended teaching procedures for children who have no formal communication skills, to children who are near conversational speakers. The CD Seminar Set will also describe and demonstrate errorless teaching, specific quick-transfer (prompting and fading) procedures, and the use of both discrete trial training in the natural environment and during intensive teaching sessions. CD Seminar Set includes over 7 hours of video instruction, contained on 7 CDs: 1. Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and Verbal Behavior; 2. Teaching Learner Cooperation: Part I; 3. Teaching Learner Cooperation: Part II; 4. Instructional Variables and Teaching Procedures; 5. B.F. Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior; 6. Selecting an Augmentative/Alternative Method of Communication; 7. Teaching Non-Vocal Learners to Talk

- Teaching Verbal Behavior: An Introduction to Parents Teaching Language by Dr. James Partington. Available at Behavior Analysts, Inc. and Different Roads to Learning.

Behavior Analysts, Inc. is extremely proud to announce a new addition to our publications, with the release of Teaching Verbal Behavior: An Introduction to Parents Teaching Language. This 50 minute video, narrated by Dr. Jim Partington, follows the first ten months of an intensive language intervention program conducted by the mother of Dani, a young girl diagnosed with autism. Dani's progress demonstrates the importance of parents learning to capture their child's motivation, as we see Dani's family teaching her how to ask for items and activities that she enjoys (mand training). Dr. James Partington reviews the process for the identification of initial skills to be taught, and presents an analysis of effective teaching strategies. Dr. Partington additionally describes the progression of a language-based curriculum that focuses on the development of specific expressive language skills and other basic learner skills. Through the development of these skills, Dani, like many other children with language delays, gradually becomes more able to learn from less structured teaching activities. With Dr. Partington's clear and systematic presentation, parents and professionals can learn the essential elements of programs like Dani's, designed to help children with language delays be successful participants in the learning process.

- A Collection of Reprints on Verbal Behavior by Drs. Mark Sundberg and Jack Michael. Available at Behavior Analysts, Inc.

This volume of reprints brings together research and analyses published by Sundberg and/or Michael and their collaborators over the past 15 years in journals such as The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, JEAB, JABA, Behaviorism, and The Behavior Analyst. The book includes sections on establishing operations and the mand, teaching verbal behavior to individuals with language impairments, teaching verbal behavior to nonhumans, topography-based and selection-based verbal behavior, automatic reinforcement and punishment, conceptual issues, research topics and reference lists. (302 pages.)

- The Verbal Behavior Network Available at The Verbal Behavior Network

The Verbal Behavior Network: Where those who are guided by the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) that emphasize the teaching of verbal behavior to children with developmental disabilities. Share time saving documents & templates; View video demonstrations of best practice teaching procedures; Learn through "targeted and sustained" training; Create IEPs, program books & team web sites

- "The History of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and Verbal Behavior"Presented by Dr. Vincent J. Carbone. Available at POAC

A brief online video clip discussing the development of the science of behavior analysis and its applications (ABA), including VB. (about 50 minutes.)

- Quick Tips Binder Set by Behavior Analysts, Inc. Available at Behavior Analysts, Inc.

Like the study guides you might have seen for “essentials of chemistry” (or math or geography), or a really condensed version of Cliff Notes, these double-sided, laminated sheets include both an “in-a-nutshell” version of various behavioral teaching topics and guided exercises for training. Each QuickTip sheet has condensed readings on one side and suggestions for additional readings, with the second side filled with training exercises and “post-on-the-fridge” idea space – even a checklist for evaluating training skills for that topic. These short, focused guides are the perfect length for program team meetings, initial new staff training sessions, or training parents, grandparents, or anyone else involved in a child's program. Durably laminated and hole-punched for easy placement in program binders, QuickTips are sure to become your standard reference for teaching stragies, as they have become ours. Our first series of QuickTips, on behavioral teaching strategies, includes the following topics: Reinforcement; Pairing (establishing yourself as a reinforcer); Instructional Control; Prompting and Fading; Shaping; Discrete Trials; Correction Procedure. QuickTips are available as single sheets or as a binder collection.

- The Pocket ABLLS and The Pocket FFC Available at The Mariposa School.

THE PROBLEM: Most Verbal Behavior programs emphasize the importance of keeping the focus on the child, not the data. Traditional methods for recording data in a notebook are: · Disruptive to the student focus · Bulky and awkward to handle during instruction · Time consuming to set up and manage · Difficult to carry over into the natural environment (NET) · Not conducive to timely exchange of information between teachers Another important emphasis is the use of transfer procedures to build new skills based on existing ones. This is often overlooked in home programs because there are so many separate goals.
THE SOLUTION: The Pocket-ABLLS and Pocket-FFC systems were designed to overcome these challenges. Data is captured on reusable cards which can be carried anywhere. In most cases, it is necessary to circle only whether a student response was prompted or independent. At a later time (when the instructor is not working with the student) this information is transferred to corresponding data sheets so that the program supervisor may review trends. By grouping related goals together on one card, it is easier for instructors to make sure that all relevant targets are taught before something is considered "mastered".
FEATURES: · Laminated, pocket sized cards are portable for use anywhere the child goes · Data can be captured quickly on cards and recorded later, so that the instructor's attention is focused on the student · Important notes (techniques, insights) can be written directly onto the cards for other instructors to see · Helps to ensure that all targets are probed and taught each day · Provides a quick "snapshot" of current and mastered goals · Easy to make sure mastered goals are maintained by cycling through the cards

- Implementing an Effective ABA/VB Program Suggestions Available at The Mariposa School.

A list of available resources on teaching verbal behavior to students.

- The Complete ABLLS Kit by VB Teaching Tools. Available at VB Teaching Tools.

The complete ABLLS kit comes with teaching materials needed to administer your child's assessment. The quality materials included can then be used for the IEP or home program you develop. This Kit is furnished with every material you will need for your VB program based on the recommendations of well-qualified VB consultants. The only materials excluded from this kit are reinforcers that are specific to your child's individual needs and motivation. The kit is not only comprehensive, but user friendly. It comes in a handy embroidered rolling duffle bag ideal for easy transportation. Items are labeled separately with the corresponding ABLLS code to make assessment quick and easy. All kit materials come in clear plastic containers for clear organization and safe keeping.

- The Early Learner at Home by Autism Teaching Tools™ Available at Autism Teaching Tools™

The Early Learner at Home is an intimate look at the curriculum of an early learner with autistic spectrum disorder. The teaching procedures used in the video are depicted with detailed explanations via diagrams, subtitles and voiceover. Examples of the teaching depicted include the following: requesting via picture exchange and speech, non-verbal social interaction, introduction to labeling (will go into more detail with later videos), teaching prepositions and actions, generalization, teaching via activities, requesting help, all done, waiting, sensory integration techniques including a full brushing/joint compression treatment, massage, labeling emotions, addressing problem behaviors, white boards for curriculum maintenance, beginning data collection, goal setting, gaining attention and maintaining motivation. Lastly, there is a brief section on prompt independence. The movie shows how [the family chooses] goals or make programming decisions and why. It is a good example of a child-first programming paradigm.

- Evy's Progress by Autism Teaching Tools™ Available at Autism Teaching Tools™

This video is a 22 minute glimpse at what [Evy] was like before diagnosis and therapy and what he was like 1 year and 8 months into therapy--including strengths and weaknesses. There is a brief tour of the toy/therapy room with a look at the white board system [used] to guide Evy's natural environment teaching. Unlike The Early Learner at Home which goes into detail about curriculum, this video shows how [Evy's parent captures] moments in simple daily routines and try to turn them into learning experiences. Evy was diagnosed with high functioning autism at 2 years old (HFA mainly due to his social abilities--his language abilities were classified at 3-6 month old receptive and 6-9 month expressive). His language use was classified severe (though vocal) on the ATEC. Evy had one year of strict Discrete Trial therapy, but then [the family] moved away from that style to incorporate a broader range of ABA teaching procedures, as well as successful techniques from other programs.

- Mariposa School "Training Manual" by Tracy Vail and Denise Freeman. Available at Mariposa School

This manual was compiled from handouts written by Tracy Vail and Denise Freeman and edited by Cindy Peters for Verbal Behavior Training Seminars July - October 2002.

WORKSHOPS: (Listed on this site's Calendar page.)

- Dr. Vincent J. Carbone: Information at Dr. Vincent Carbone's Website or email

Dr. Vincent J. Carbone is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst with over 25 years of experience designing learning environments for persons with Autism and development disabilities. He received his graduate training in Applied Behavior Analysis at Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa. He has served on the Florida Peer Review Committee, which monitors and guides the provision of behavior analysis services for persons with Autism and related developmental disabilities in Florida. He has served as an adjunct faculty member at Penn State University and Florida Institute of Technology, teaching courses in Applied Behavior Analysis and Verbal Behavior. His behavior analytic research has been published in several peer-reviewed journals including School Application of Learning Theory, Education and Treatment of Children and Journal of Special Education Technology. He is a frequent invited speaker at professional workshops and conferences. He regularly presents his verbal behavior research at the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis and the International Association for Behavior Analysis annual conferences. He has provided the preparatory training and clinical consultation to hundreds of Certified Behavior Analysts in several states. His research and clinical expertise focuses predominantly on the design and implementation of teaching programs for persons with autism, with special emphasis upon teaching verbal behavior to the most difficult to instruct learners. He is the developer and presenter of a series of workshops on teaching verbal behavior to children with Autism based upon B.F. Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior. He and his group of associates are currently working with several school districts, agencies and families throughout the United States and are presently providing services to persons in Canada and the United Kingdom. He is the director of a center-based clinic for children with Autism in Rockland County, N.Y. The clinic provides consultation, training and therapeutic services to children, their families and instructional teams.

- Dr. Mark Sundberg: Information at Behavior Analysts, Inc. or email

Dr. Sundberg is a licensed psychologist and a board certified behavior analyst (BCBA), and has been conducting language research with children with autism and other developmental disabilities for more than 25 years. Dr. Sundberg recieved his doctorate degree in Applied Behavior Analysis from Western Michigan University (1980), under the direction of Dr. Jack Michael. He is the founder and past editor of the journal The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, and has published over 35 empirical and conceptual papers, manuals, and book chapters on topics in applied behavior analysis, the analysis of verbal behavior, and teaching strategies for children with disabilities. He has also co-authored with Dr. James W. Partington the books, Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities and The Assessment of Language and Learning Skills (The ABLLS): An assessment, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system for children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Dr. Sundberg has also given over 250 conference presentations and workshops on methods of language assessment and intervention for children with autism and other developmental disabilities, and has taught over 70 college courses on behavior analysis, language, and child development.

- Dr. James Partington: Information at Behavior Analysts, Inc. or email

Dr. Partington is the director of educational services at Behavior Analysts, Inc. He is a licensed psychologist and a board certified behavior analyst (BCBA), and has more than 25 years experience. His expertise is in language intervention with children who are experiencing language delays as a result of autism-related disorders. Dr. Partington received his Bachelor's Degree and Master's Degree at Western Michigan University and received his Ph.D. from Florida State University. He has taught courses in the Psychology Department at West Virginia University, in the Department of Education at St. Mary's College, and in the Counseling Psychology Program at the University of San Francisco. Dr. Partington has published several papers on teaching strategies for children with disabilities, and has co-authored with Dr. Mark L. Sundberg the books, Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities and The Assessment of Language and Learning Skills (The ABLLS): An assessment, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system for children with autism or other developmental disabilities.

- Dr. Patrick McGreevy: Information at Dr. Patrick McGreevy's Behavior Change Website or email

Dr. McGreevy received B.S. and M.A. degrees from the University of Iowa. Following eight years as a teacher of students with severe handicaps, he received a Ph.D. degree in Education from Kansas University in 1978. For the next eight years he served on faculties of the University of Missouri-Kansas City and Louisiana State University. In 1986 he moved to Florida and was certified as a behavior analyst. During the next nine years he served as a behavior analyst for the Volusia County Schools. He has been an adjunct professor at the University of Central Florida since 1987. From 1992-1998, he served on the Florida Behavior Analysis Peer Review Committee. He opened a private practice in Behavior Analysis in 1995. Dr. McGreevy has helped Children and adults with disabilities in 13 states improve their skills and behavior by providing consultation and training to families, schools, group homes, and residential facilities. He specializes in the replacement of non-compliant, aggressive, and self-injurious behavior with communication and social skills and bringing these skills to fluency. Dr. McGreevy uses only scientifically validated procedures from Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Therapy, Direct Instruction, and Precision Teaching.

- Christina Burk, M.A.: Information here

An abbreviated list of my conferences (for those who asked).


- DTT-NET: Join list at DTT-NET's Homepage or by email

One of the most complex tasks both parents and professionals face is developing and implementing an effective language intervention for children with autism. Parents and professionals are finding that BOTH Discrete Trial Training (DTT) and Natural Environment Training (NET), together with the help of Skinner's (1957) Functional Analysis of Verbal Behavior to be very effective for children with autism. And let me say, ALL THE ABOVE are components of ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis). This list group was designed to discuss how all of these components of ABA work together. It is a place where parents and professionals running home (and school) programs can discuss concerns and share their knowledge of this type of teaching. Other issues relating to autism will not be addressed on this list. (DTT-NET is not a methodology within itself. DTT-NET is an acronym used to describe this listgroup.) Rhonda Miga, founding member. As of Jan 2001, this list is owned and moderated by Jennifer Godwin, Please contact her with any questions.

- Verbal Behavior: Join list at Verbal Behavior's Homepage or by email

The focus of this list is teaching verbal behavior (VB) within a program of applied behavior analysis (ABA). B.F. Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior looked at the functions of language over its forms, and described numerous verbal operants, or units of language. ABA/VB addresses difficulties in the development of communication seen in most individuals with autism and other related disabilities, in part by emphasizing functional language and tying it to motivational variables. Incorporating Skinner's analysis of VB as part of an ABA program has recently been popularized by certain professionals, notably Drs. Sundberg, Partington, Carbone, McGreevy, Michael, et al. Members of this list post and answer questions pertaining to ABA and specifically to teaching VB. Responses are checked before approval to ensure a high quality of information. Christina Burk, Moderator.

- [VerbalBeh]: Join list at VerbalBeh's Homepage

This is a list for professionals (including most of the leaders in the field) and others interested in Verbal Behavior (VB) in both applied and pure settings. Many members belong to the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group (VB SIG). You can access the list's archives here.


- The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (AVB): Subscribe at AVB's Homepage or at ABA's Online Store

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior journal contains much of the literature supporting application of verbal behavior to schooling. The AVB journal (ISSN 0889-9401) is published annually by the Association for Behavior Analysis: International, and is primarily for the original publication of experimental or theoretical papers relevant to a behavioral analysis of verbal behavior. Manuscripts are typically relevant to at least one of the following topics: the elementary verbal operants, autoclitics, multiple control, private events, rule-governed behavior, epistemology, scientific verbal behavior, language acquisition, language assessment and training, second languages, pedagogy, the verbal behavior of nonhumans, and verbal behavior research methodology.

- The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA): Subscribe at JABA's Homepage or by clicking here.

The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is primarily for the original publication of reports of experimental research involving applications of the experimental analysis of behavior to problems of social importance. It will also publish technical articles relevant to such research and discussion of issues arising from behavioral applications. The Journal is published quarterly by the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc., at Lawrence, Kansas.

- The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB): Subscribe at JEAB's Homepage or by clicking here.

The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (ISSN 0022-5002; USPS 867240) is primarily for the original publication of experiments relevant to the behavior of individual organisms. Review articles and theoretical papers will also be considered for publication. The Journal is published bimonthly by the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc., at the Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-1301.


- ABA's Service To Apply, Recruit & Train (START): START

The goal of S.T.A.R.T is to be the central site for the placement of behavior analysts in jobs, internships, and graduate training programs within the field of behavior analysis. It has applicant and employer services, as well as a list of graduate training programs in ABA.

- Christina Burk Behavioral Consulting Training Series: Training Info

These monthly trainings are for parents, consultants, staff, or those looking to be trained in ABA/VB. It is also a networking opportunity to match families who need staff with professionals who need students.

- ABA Connections: ABA Connections Site

- A listing of consultants, therapists, psychologists, and other working in the fields of ABA and autism.